Other large buildings include a "Pillared Hall", thought to be an assembly hall of some kind, and the so-called "College Hall", a complex of buildings comprising 78 rooms, thought to have been a priestly residence. Mohenjo-daro had no series of city walls, but was fortified with guard towers to the west of the main settlement, and defensive fortifications to the south.
Considering these fortifications and the structure of other major Indus valley cities like Harappa , it is postulated that Mohenjo-daro was an administrative center. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-daro share relatively the same architectural layout, and were generally not heavily fortified like other Indus Valley sites.
It is obvious from the identical city layouts of all Indus sites that there was some kind of political or administrative centrality, but the extent and functioning of an administrative center remains unclear. The city also had large platforms perhaps intended as defense against flooding. Numerous objects found in excavation include seated and standing figures, copper and stone tools, carved seals , balance-scales and weights , gold and jasper jewellery, and children's toys.
In , a representative collection of artefacts excavated at the site was transferred to the British Museum by the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. A bronze statuette dubbed the "Dancing Girl", A girl perfectly, for the moment, perfectly confident of herself and the world. There's nothing like her, I think, in the world.
John Marshall , another archeologist at Mohenjo-daro, described the figure as "a young girl, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, and legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet. The statue led to two important discoveries about the civilization: In , a seated male soapstone figure was found in a building with unusually ornamental brickwork and a wall-niche.
Though there is no evidence that priests or monarchs ruled Mohenjo-daro, archaeologists dubbed this dignified figure a "Priest-King. He wears an armband, and a cloak with drilled trefoil , single circle and double circle motifs, which show traces of red. His eyes might have originally been inlaid. A seal discovered at the site bears the image of a seated, cross-legged and possibly ithyphallic figure surrounded by animals.
The figure has been interpreted by some scholars as a yogi , and by others as a three-headed "proto- Shiva " as "Lord of Animals". Sir Mortimer Wheeler was especially fascinated with this artifact, which he believed to be at least 4, years old. Each strand has between and of the many-faceted nuggets, and there are about 1, nuggets in total. The necklace weighs about grams in total, and is presently held in a private collection in India.
Contributions were made by a number of other countries to the project:. Preservation work for Mohenjo-daro was suspended in December after funding from the Pakistani government and international organizations stopped.
In , responsibility for the preservation of the site was transferred to the government of Sindh. Currently the site is threatened by groundwater salinity and improper restoration. Many walls have already collapsed, while others are crumbling from the ground up. In , Pakistani archaeologists warned that, without improved conservation measures, the site could disappear by This would have exposed the site to mechanical operations, including excavation and drilling. Farzand Masih, head of the Department of Archaeology at Punjab University warned that such activity was banned under the Antiquity Act , saying "You cannot even hammer a nail at an archaeological site.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the archaeological site. For the film, see Mohenjo Daro film. Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilization. Cities in South Asia. Possehl 11 November An Ancient Indus Valley Metropolis". Could this ancient city be lost forever? Retrieved 27 October Presented at the World Classical Tamil Conference Retrieved 8 April Tracing the death of a river".
Retrieved 9 June Naylor; Dahia Ibo Shabaka Second International Symposium on Mohenjo-daro, 24—27 February American Institute of Pakistan Studies. Retrieved 14 November Over the centuries houses were rebuilt and street levels rose; new courses of bricks were therefore added to the wells to keep their tops at the same height with respect to the street.
The removal of earth and debris during the excavation of the city has left many wells standing like towers high above the exposed remnants of earlier streets.
Archaeology Online ; retrieved 8 April National Museum, New Delhi. Retrieved 3 February Mohenjo-Daro is located on the bank of the Indus River in present-day Pakistan and is the best-preserved city of the Indus civilization. The mound also had a great bath 39 feet by 23 feet, flanked by a large pillared hall, small rooms, and a granary. A well-laid-out town lay below the citadel with streets running in a grid pattern oriented to the points of the compass.
The town was divided into wards according to function, such as areas for shops, workshops, and residences. All buildings were made with baked bricks of uniform size. Besides private wells in the courtyards of two-story individual residences, there were also public wells at street intersections. Covered sewers disposed of waste. There was also a cemetery where graves were neatly oriented in the same direction.
There were no palaces or royal cemeteries. Inscribed seals found at Mohenjo-Daro and other Indus cities show pictographic writing, to date undeciphered. So few characters are inscribed on each seal that they would not give much information even if they were deciphered. Thus despite a high-level material culture, the Indus civilization is still considered prehistoric.
Essay on Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Length: words ( double-spaced pages) Rating: Strong Essays. Open Document. Essay Preview. It is funny how we human beings never take a second to think about or appreciate the history and aspects of items that .
Mohenjo-Daro Essay Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are two ancient cities located on the banks of the Indus and its tributary the Ravi River in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent.
Mohenjo-daro is widely recognized as one of the most important early cities of South Asia and the Indus Civilization and yet most publications rarely provide more than a cursory overview of this important site. Mohenjo-daro is a large peripheral trading center. Rakhigari and Ganweriwala (not yet excavated in ) on the Sarasvati are as big as Mohenjo-daro. So Words.
ESSAY ON MOHENJO DARO. Wolf assembles essays and answers – ancient star hrithik roshan suffered a. Essay english culture essay study of its time, pakistan border - dancing girl of two a journalist who try to feed your life. Mohenjo Daro, or "Mound of the Dead" is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city that flourished between and BCE. The site was discovered in the s and lies in Pakistan's Sindh province. Only a handful of archaeologists have excavated here, described in the introduction and illustrated essay.