Lincoln was still uncertain about Hooker mainly due to his outspoken opinions about the government and Burnside. During the next few months, however, Hooker proved to be a good administrator of the army, reorganizing it into an efficient fighting force. By April, it was ready once again to begin offensive operations. The Northern public was growing weary of inaction by the Army of the Potomac. Having done all that he could to ensure success, Lincoln should have felt confident about victory.
The president could not visit and actively supervise the Union armies in the West, but he could send a personal representative to be his eyes and ears. Dana on a fact-finding mission in April. That spring Grant attempted several different schemes to bypass the Confederate defenses at Vicksburg. While none proved successful, at least he and his command were making attempts to defeat the enemy.
Their efforts did not go unnoticed in Washington, but Lincoln was concerned that Grant was dividing his army before the enemy, which might prove costly. He wanted Grant to unite with Maj. Then the Navy would ferry his men to the east bank of the river, where they would be on the same side as their objective—Vicksburg.
In mid-April, Grant did just what he said he would do. Hooker was also ready to fight by the end of April. In a series of brilliant maneuvers, he managed to keep the South in the dark about his intentions and get his army across the Rappahannock and Rapidan rivers without interference. Once the army began to move, Lincoln monitored its progress by telegram.
Will tell you as soon as I can, and have it satisfactory. On May 1, the Union and Confederate forces collided in a region known as the Wilderness. Over the next three days, a tremendous battle would be fought near a crossroads known as Chancellorsville. Daniel Butterfield, sent the following message: Later during the battle, Butterfield informed Lincoln: Loss heavy on both sides.
General Hooker slightly, but not severely, wounded. Finally, on May 5, Butterfield sent a telegram to Lincoln that was not received until the next day explaining the dire situation that Hooker and the Army of the Potomac faced. Butterfield advised that the army was still south of the Rappahannock in a strong position, but that Hooker believed it was possible the enemy might have crossed the river and turned his right flank.
What will the country say! By May 7, Lincoln was back to trying to actively manage the army and salvage something from a bad situation. He wrote Hooker to ask if the general had another plan to rebound from this most recent Union defeat. If you have not, please inform me, so that I, incompetent as I may be, can try and assist in the formation of some plan for the army.
While Grant and Hooker were moving—with variable results—Rosecrans continued to tarry in Tennessee. It seemed that no one in the government, including Lincoln, could get him to engage the enemy. Not only did Lincoln want Tennessee cleared of the enemy, he also wanted to ensure that the Confederates were prevented from reinforcing their army facing Grant at Vicksburg.
I will attend to it. The next day Halleck telegraphed Rosecrans that intelligence indicated that enemy troops in his front were leaving to oppose Grant.
Still he failed to move. On the same day, Rosecrans responded to Halleck that he had held a council of war with his corps and division commanders, and they had a much different view of events than did Washington. They believed that it was not advisable to move until the fate of Vicksburg had been decided. Rosecrans offered a military maxim that an army should not attempt to fight two decisive battles at the same time.
Halleck shot back with a maxim of his own: Councils of war do not fight. Finally, on June 23, after much prodding by Lincoln and Halleck, Rosecrans finally began his much-awaited advance southward. During the next two weeks, through efficient movement but little actual combat, Rosecrans managed to maneuver the Confederate forces completely out of middle Tennessee.
That failure would come back to haunt him. In the East, Hooker had intended to launch another campaign against Lee after Chancellorsville. On May 13, Lincoln met with Hooker in Washington. Lincoln now expected Hooker to do no more than keep the Confederates at bay with occasional harassing cavalry raids while he put the Army of the Potomac back in good condition.
Over the course of the next few weeks, General Robert E. Lee launched his second invasion of the North in less than a year. Realizing that the president had no faith in him, Hooker offered his resignation, and perhaps to his surprise, Lincoln immediately accepted it.
The president promoted Maj. Meade, a corps commander in the Army of the Potomac, to command the army. The Army of the Potomac met the enemy near the town of Gettysburg, Pa. Once the battle was joined, Lincoln kept up with the action via telegrams sent to the War Department.
Victory had been achieved. His main problem was that he faced two separate Confederate armies in Mississippi. One occupied Vicksburg, while the other was assembling at Jackson. Not wanting these two forces to unite, Grant moved his army between them. Grant quickly attempted to take the city by assault, but failed and then turned to a siege to starve out the defenders.
Finally, on July 4, the waiting ended for Grant, Lincoln and the country. The president was in the War Department when the announcement came over the wire on July 7. A humble Lincoln sent Grant a gracious letter of appreciation: I write this now as a grateful acknowledgement for the almost inestimable service you have done the country. I wish to say a word further. When you first reached the vicinity of Vicksburg, I thought you should do what you finally did….
When you got below and took Port Gibson, Grand Gulf, and vicinity, I thought you should go down the river and join Gen. I now wish to make the personal acknowledgement that you were right and I was wrong. Lincoln became convinced that Meade would allow the enemy to escape unless he was pressured to attack.
Finally, on July 12, Meade notified Washington that he would attack the next day. Lincoln was in the telegraph office when the message was received. The president proved to be right. His feelings about the matter are most evident in a letter that he composed to Meade but never sent him: As it is, the war will be prolonged indefinitely.
Lincoln, however, was not ready to give up on Meade as commander of the Army of the Potomac. He had, after all, won a major, if incomplete, victory against Lee.
Very few others could boast of that. Several thousand men had been discharged when their enlistments expired. A division was sent to South Carolina for siege operations, and more than 1, men were sent to New York City to quell draft riots. Lee actually mounted a minor offensive against Meade, forcing the Union general to fall back from the Rappahannock River toward Washington.
Meade checked this movement with a clash at Bristoe Station and eventually pushed southward again. The Federals won a victory at Rappahannock Station in November, but their weak advance ground to a halt later that month along Mine Run.
Aside for minor operations against the enemy, the Army of the Potomac would do nothing more until the spring of Lincoln wanted a quick advance by the Army of the Cumberland into the strategically important eastern part of the state.
The army finally began advancing on August Believing that he had the enemy in full retreat and forgetting that Bragg still had an intact army, Rosecrans continued his advance into Georgia. After he belatedly realized that his own army was overextended, Rosecrans attempted to consolidate his force in defensive positions near Chickamauga Creek, 10 miles south of Chattanooga.
The Confederates struck the Union positions on September 19, and in a vicious two-day battle Rosecrans and his army were sent scurrying back to Chattanooga. A rattled Rosecrans wired Washington the same day, saying that he was uncertain whether his army could hold Chattanooga. Lincoln responded immediately that he still had confidence in the general and that the government would do all it could to assist him.
By September 22, concerned that he had not heard from Rosecrans in two days, Lincoln wired him and asked the condition of his forces in Chattanooga. Rosecrans responded that he held the town with 30, men but that their fate was in the hands of God—hardly a response to instill confidence.
Lincoln continued to try to help Rosecrans restore his faith in himself and his army. On September 23, the Confederate siege of Chattanooga began. The trapped Rosecrans needed help, and Lincoln attempted to find a way to send him reinforcements, debating the best way to do this with Halleck and Stanton. He said that 20, troops could be moved in a few weeks—Halleck said such an operation would more likely take a few months.
By mid-October, Lincoln had decided that a change in the command system in the West was in order. Grant was promoted to head a unified command that included most of the armies and departments from Tennessee westward. Lincoln gave Grant authority to retain or relieve Rosecrans. Grant chose the latter, replacing the lethargic general with Maj. Grant then proceeded to Chattanooga to take personal command of the efforts to break the siege. The siege of Chattanooga was broken on October 30 when a small supply line—dubbed the Cracker Line—was opened into the city.
By the end of it was clear to Lincoln that in Grant he had found the aggressive commander he had been seeking since the beginning of the war. In March Lincoln promoted Grant to lieutenant general, and appointed him general in chief of the Union armies. From this point until the end of the war, the president would no longer actively manage military matters. Having Grant at the helm saved the president time and energy.
The course of events in had forced Lincoln to become an active commander in chief. It is hard to imagine generals such as Rosecrans ever moving without pressure from above. Perhaps there might not have been the Union defeats at Chancellorsville and Chickamauga, but there might not have been the Union victories at Gettysburg, Vicksburg or Chattanooga, either. But in recent years powerful movements have gathered, both on the political right and the left, to condemn Lincoln as a flawed and even wicked man.
It was Lincoln who, over the years, carefully crafted the public image of himself as Log Cabin Lincoln, Honest Abe and the rest of it. But as founding father and future president James Madison noted in The Federalist , the American system was consciously designed to attract ambitious men.
Such ambition was presumed natural to a politician and favorable to democracy as long as it sought personal distinction by promoting the public good through constitutional means. What unites the right-wing and left-wing attacks on Lincoln, of course, is that they deny that Lincoln respected the law and that he was concerned with the welfare of all.
The right-wing school — made up largely of Southerners and some libertarians — holds that Lincoln was a self-serving tyrant who rode roughshod over civil liberties, such as the right to habeas corpus. Lincoln is also accused of greatly expanding the size of the federal government.
Some libertarians even charge — and this is not intended as a compliment — that Lincoln was the true founder of the welfare state. His right-wing critics say that despite his show of humility, Lincoln was a megalomaniacal man who was willing to destroy half the country to serve his Caesarian ambitions. In an influential essay, the late Melvin E. Although Bradford viewed Lincoln as a kind of manic abolitionist, many in the right-wing camp deny that the slavery issue was central to the Civil War.
Rather, they insist, the war was driven primarily by economic motives. Essentially, the industrial North wanted to destroy the economic base of the South. Arguing the Case for Southern Secession , published in , contends that the causes leading up to the Civil War had virtually nothing to do with slavery. This approach to rewriting history has been going on for more than a century. Alexander Stephens, former vice president of the Confederacy, published a two-volume history of the Civil War between and in which he hardly mentioned slavery, insisting that the war was an attempt to preserve constitutional government from the tyranny of the majority.
But this is not what Stephens said in the great debates leading up to the war. Its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests upon the great truth that the Negro is not equal to the white man. Slavery — subordination to the superior race — is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great and moral truth.
But, as Calhoun himself pointed out in one speech, they too derived an important benefit from slavery: This is not to say that he waffled on the morality of slavery. Lincoln conceded that the American founders had agreed to tolerate slavery in the Southern states, and he confessed that he had no wish and no power to interfere with it there.
The only issue — and it was an issue on which Lincoln would not bend — was whether the federal government could restrict slavery in the new territories. This was the issue of the presidential campaign of ; this was the issue that determined secession and war. Lincoln argued that the South had no right to secede — that the Southern states had entered the Union as the result of a permanent compact with the Northern states.
That Union was based on the principle of majority rule, with constitutional rights carefully delineated for the minority. Of course the Southerners objected that they should not be forced to live under a regime that they considered tyrannical, but Lincoln countered that any decision to dissolve the original compact could only occur with the consent of all the parties involved. Once again, it makes no sense to have such agreements when any group can unilaterally withdraw from them and go its own way.
The rest of the libertarian and right-wing case against Lincoln is equally without merit. Yes, Lincoln suspended habeas corpus and arrested Southern sympathizers, but let us not forget that the nation was in a desperate war in which its very survival was at stake. Discussing habeas corpus, Lincoln insisted that it made no sense for him to protect this one constitutional right and allow the very Union established by the Constitution, the very framework for the protection of all rights, to be obliterated.
Governments need to be strong to fight wars. The evidence for the right-wing insistence that Lincoln was the founder of the modern welfare state stems from the establishment, begun during his administration, of a pension program for Union veterans and support for their widows and orphans. Those were, however, programs aimed at a specific, albeit large, part of the population.
The welfare state came to America in the 20th century. Franklin Roosevelt should be credited, or blamed, for that.
He institutionalized it, and Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon expanded it. Retrieved 27 July The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on October 20, Retrieved October 8, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved February 12, The Rise of Abraham Lincoln. Archived from the original on February 12, Retrieved March 12, Retrieved August 17, Improvement for Buoying Vessels Over Shoals". Archived from the original on August 25, Retrieved April 28, The Wisdom of Abraham Lincoln.
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Houghton, Mifflin and Co. Morse, John Torrey Abraham Lincoln, Vol 2. Neely, Mark E The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America. Lincoln in the World: Lincoln the President 4 volumes.
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Abraham Lincoln was elected for two terms, but only served one of them in full. His first term began on March 4, He was re-elected in and began his second term on March 4, , but was assassinated after only 42 days, dying in office on April 15, He was elected President of the united States in He was reelected in , but only got to serve for one year before his assassination in April of How many terms did Abraham Lincoln serve?
Abraham Lincoln only served one full term as President. He waselected to another term, but was assassinated before he completelyserved it. How old was Abraham Lincoln when he was in office? Well he was 56 when he died and he died while he was in office. What was Abraham Lincoln's term of office? Abraham Lincoln's term of office was March 4, to April 15, Lincoln was succeeded by Andrew Johnson who had been his VicePresident. What year was abraham lincoln in office?
March 4, until he was assassinated in his 2nd term on April 15, March 4, - April 15, What important terms did Abraham Lincoln say?
Abraham Lincoln's most famous speech was his Gettysburg Address in It is considered so powerful because it was simple and "real," explaining the realities of the Civil War in as few as words. The entire text, with more famous lines bolded: Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation: Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.
We are met on a great battlefield of that war.. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.
The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us.
And t hat government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. How old was Abraham Lincoln when he took office? Being born on February 12th of and taking office as America's16th president on March 4th of , Abraham Lincoln was 52 yearsold when his presidency began. He would live to see his 56thbirthday and the start of a second term as president -- but nomore.
How many years was Abraham Lincoln in office? Abraham Lincoln was elected for 2 terms. But before he could finish his second term, Lincoln was assassinated. He died serving 4 years and 42 days, or 42 days into his second term. What did Abraham Lincoln do in office? Abraham Lincoln was preoccupied during his presidency with theCivil War and maintaining the union in spite of it.
He is, perhaps,best known for his hand in the abolition of slavery. He also hadsuccess in banking and commerce. How long was Abraham Lincoln's term in office? His mother passed away when he was 10 years old.
His father removed from Kentucky to India when he was 8 years old. Afterwards, he grew up and lived alone, and he basically raised himself!
He built the Republician Party into a strong orginazation. On January 1,, he issued the Emancipation Proclaimation that declared the slaves to be free in the Confrederacy. Why did Abraham Lincoln leave office? Abraham Lincoln left office because he was assassinated on April15, He was the 16th President of the United States from March4, until his death. How long was Abraham Lincoln in office?
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th US President, was in office from March until his assassination in April , 4 years and 1 month. Lincoln died on April 15, , a little more than a month after being inaugurated for his second term in office.
Abraham Lincoln (February 12, – April 15, ) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March until his assassination in April
Abraham Lincoln became the United States’ 16th President in , issuing the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy in Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war.
Abraham Lincoln is considered by many to be America's greatest president. Sadly, his vision of how to reunite the North and South after the Civil War was not given a chance to come to fruition. This page provides a list of fast facts for Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln left office because he was assassinated on April15, He was the 16th President of the United States from March4, until his death. Share to.
Facts, information and articles about the life of Abraham Lincoln, 16th President Of the United States Abraham Lincoln Facts Born February 12, , Hodgenville, Kentucky Died April 15, , Petersen House, Washington, D.C. cointent_lockedcontent Presidential Term March 4, – April 15, Spouse Mary Todd Lincoln Major . Lincoln is elected: On March 4th, , Abraham Lincoln was elected as the 16th president of the country. He was the first republican president. His election triggered seven southern states to secede in a short time period before his inaugural speech.